To us, the cosmos appears three dimensional. But one of the theories of theoretical physics defies this statement. The “holographic principle” proposes that a mathematical description of the universe in fact needs one fewer dimensions than it appears. What we observe as three dimensional may just be the picture of two dimensional procedures on a huge cosmic horizon. Now, researchers are taking a thorough look at this theory.
The principle, until now, has only been analyzed in unusual spaces with negative curvature. These spaces, however, are different from the space in our own cosmos. Now, scientists have discovered that the holographic principle is valid in a flat space-time.
Everybody knows about holograms; you can observe them in credit cards or even on dollar bills. While they’re two dimensional, they seem three dimensional to us. Now, researchers propose that our universe could act same.
Gravitational phenomena are defined in a theory with three spatial dimensions. The behavior of quantum particles is in fact considered in a theory with just two spatial dimensions, and the outcomes of both studies can be mapped onto each other. This is astonishing, but the method is also successful.
For theoretical physics, this correspondence is vital. Though, it doesn’t appear to have much to do with our own cosmos, since the spaces used are negatively curved. Contrary to this, our own universe is quite flat and on astrophysical distances, has a positive curvature.
In order to understand if a correspondence principle is valid for our real universe, the scientists worked on gravitational theories which do not need exotic spaces.
“If quantum gravity in a flat space permit for a holographic explanation by a standard quantum theory, then there must be physical quantities, which can be studied in both theories-and the outcomes must agree,” said Daniel Grumiller, one of the scientists, in a news release.
When quantum particles are tangled, they cannot be defined separately. They form a single quantum object, even if they are situated far apart. There is also a measure for the quantity of entanglement in a quantum system, called “entropy of entanglement.” In this latest study, the researchers accomplished to show that this entropy of entanglement takes the similar value in flat quantum gravity and in a low dimension quantum field theory.
The discoveries disclose that the holographic principle can be understood in flat spaces. This is chiefly important to note when considering the physics of our world.